High Speed Machining (hsm) [ Definitive Guide ]

What is High Speed Machining (HSM)?

High speed machining (HSM)–also called trochoidal milling, adaptive clearing, volumill, and more–is a milling technique that can increase material removal rates, reduce cycle time, and increase Jasa Machining tool life.

This video from my CNC Chef series for Cutting Tool Engineering Magazine gives a quick What is High Speed Machining (HSM) intro:

For a quick into to High Speed Machining (HSM), try my CNC Chef video…

Note:  This High Speed Machining article is Lesson 11 of our Free Email Feeds & Speeds Master Class.  Click here to learn more about the Master Class.

There are many definitions for High Speed Machining (HSM). MMSOnline uses the tagline “Achieving high metal removal rates with quick milling passes” for the HSM zone on their site. Another very high tech definition of HSM is “Machining at the Resonant Frequency of the Machine,” which goes to HSM techniques for selecting spindle speeds that minimize chatter. You’d think that the “High Speed” part of HSM would emphasize faster spindle speeds (Sandvik says HSM begins at 18000 rpm), but that interpretation is not universal as various shops discovered HSM techniques can work well even on slower milling spindles. Others argue that HSM is all about high material removal rates and leaving a surface finish good enough to call finished in one pass.

One of the things that got people thinking about HSM was the discovery that after a certain point, increasing spindle speed actually reduces the heat in the cut:

This amazing chart is from Dr Herbert Schulz’s, “History of High Speed Machining.”

The dotted lines represent temperatures at various surface speeds measured in m/min. Here is the US, we’re more used to SFM.  Want to understand Surface Speed, SFM, and how do we get from SFM to RPM on the spindle?  Jasa Machining Medan If you’re not familiar, it’s simple stuff and the link will explain.

Note that all of the materials go steadily up and then eventually start dipping back down again as surface speed increases. Somehow, high speed machining causes temperatures decrease beyond a certain spindle rpm!

This chart is in meters/minute, so multiply the values by about 3 to get to SFM. For aluminum, we have a pretty good dip by the time we’re hitting 1000 SFM, for example. In fact, it’s temperature is more equivalent to less than 300 SFM on the other side of the aluminum curve–that’s nothing for aluminum. Heck, if we have a fast enough milling spindle, there’s even room to run HSS faster and get lower temperatures (you’ll note various cutter materials critical temperatures are also marked off–stay below the line for your cutter!).

Steel and cast iron taper down more gently than aluminum, but the effect is still alive and well. Yes Virginia, there surely is some strange behavior when you start in with that HSM stuff!

The same research showed that cutting forces also come down, and that’s at least one reason why the temperatures drop, and why for HSM machining in the right rpm ranges, you can achive high MRR’s with lower cutting forces.

Sidebar: Coating Activation Temperature, Shock Cooling, and Turning Off the Coolant

While we’re on the subject of temperature, sometimes a little heat is important. Certain coatings, such as TiAlN, require a minimum “activation” temperature. At that temperature, their chemical composition changes, the coating is “activated” and it is only then that the coating is doing its job of protecting the cutter.

The combination of a desire to activate the coating and the desire to avoid shock cooling delicate carbide (which causes it to crack and splinter) is why we may see a recommendation from the tooling manufacturer to turn of the coolant even when running at very high spindle speeds common for High Speed Machining.High Speed Machining Techniques

Datron’s M8 Cube uses a high speed spindle and high speed machining techniques to achieve maximum productivity…

Whatever your pet definition of HSM may be, I like to look at HSM machining as a collection of techniques that “grew up” together in various aerospace machining operations such as Boeing’s. It initially involved very high speed spindles but many of these techniques have since turned out to be applicable even for lower speed milling spindles.

These techniques are so useful that many CAM Programs include HSM Toolpaths that make it easy to employ HSM on any job.

Let’s list off some of these techniques:

– HSM prefers to combine roughing and finishing passes. This is really only possible with higher speed spindles, because lower speeds just don’t produce the surface finish.  The potential to skip the finish pass will also vary with the CAM package.  Some HSM algorithms are smoother than others.  If you’re trying to get by with a slower spindle, you’ll have to split into the more traditional roughing and finishing passes. For the finishing pass, use tooling with as many flutes as possible. Finishing assumes all the inside corners have been roughed out, so there will be plenty of chip clearance available. The more flutes you have, the faster you can feed through the work for a given chip load. Hence, productivity goes up. The only reason to use fewer flutes is to improve chip clearance.

– HSM prefers smaller tooling that moves faster to very large slow moving tooling designed for “hogging”. The smaller tooling saves on tool changes and makes it easier to achieve the ideal of eliminating the need for separate roughing and finishing passes.

– To maximize tool life, take advantage of relatively low cut width: 10-15% of tool diameter down to as little as lima% depending on where the sweet spot is for your milling spindle’s max rpm and the SFM your tool can handle in the material. These low radial depths allow the tool better chip clearance and time to cool down in air, allowing for much higher productivity especially on harder materials. See the article on taking heat out of the cut for some idea of how this works. With low cut width, increase the cut depth. This allows more of the cutter’s flute to come into play instead of just wearing out the bottom of the endmill.  Choosing the best cut width for optimum material removal is not an easy task.  The rules of thumb available can be far off the mark.  For best results, you want a Feeds and Speeds Calculator that’s capable of optimizing HSM cutting parameters like our G-Wizard Calculator.

– Higher MRR’s (and shorter cycle times) typically require a little more Cut Width.  Think of Tool Life more in terms of how many cubic inches of material can be removed with the tool rather than how many minutes it can run and you will quickly see that These wider Cut Widths make better economic sense.  Some testing is in order to find your balance.

– When spindle speed is a limiting factor, consider a high feed endmill. High feed endmills maximize axial chip thinning and allow much higher feedrates. Another popular roughing strategy when you don’t have as much spindle speed as you’d like are as much machine rigidity is plunge roughing.

– Use CAM toolpath strategies that avoid the “Tyranny of the Corner” (see below for more on cutters). Such strategies include constant tool engagement angle strategies such as Volumill or Adaptive Clearing, Trochoidal Milling, and Slicing or Peeling of Corners.

– Since true HSM spindles offer a much broader range of rpms than conventional spindles, HSM often emphasizes choosing spindle speeds that maximize stable milling zones were chatter is much less likely. The same anti-chatter principles can be applied to lower spindle speeds, you simply have less rpm territory in which to find a stable zone that maximizes productivity. See our article on chatter for more on stable milling zones and the role of spindle rpm in chatter.

– HSM is going to involve a lot more movement on your CNC machine to implement its swirling toolpaths.  That Jasa Machining Medan puts greater demands on your machine’s controller.  Many controllers require an extra cost HSM feature to be enabled before they can get the full benefit of HSM toolpaths.

So there you have a small arsenal of strategies to choose from for increasing your productivity using ideas learned in the HSM world. Let’s drill down a bit more on some of them.Radial Chip Thinning when High Speed Machining

One of the first issues you will encounter when attempting to practice HSM with its low width of cut (or stepover) is radial chip thinning. We’ve written a detailed article on the subject, but for a quick overview, consider the following diagram:

View down the axis of the cutter shows how radial chip thinning works…

Goodwin College

CNC machining plays a vital role in the evolving world of terbaru manufacturing. But what is CNC, exactly? How does it play a role in the manufacturing industry, and what do CNC machinists do? Even more so, how can aspiring CNC machinists successfully prepare for – and land – a job in CNC machining today? As a leading manufacturing and machining school in Connecticut, Jasa Machining Medan Goodwin College breaks down all the details below, starting with the basics:

CNC stands for Computerized Numerical Control. It is a computerized manufacturing process in which pre-programmed perangkat lunak and code controls the movement of production equipment. CNC machining controls a range of complex Jasa Machining machinery, such as grinders, lathes, and turning mills, all of which are used to cut, shape, and create different parts and prototypes. On the day to day, CNC machinists combine elements of mechanical design, technical drawings, mathematics, and computer programming skills to produce a variety of metal and plastic parts. CNC operators can take a sheet of metal and turn it into a critical airplane or automobile part.

Computer Numerical Control machines are automated machines, which are operated by computers executing pre-programmed sequences of controlled commands. CNC machines are essentially the opposite of “old-school” devices that are manually controlled by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by cams alone. Today’s terkini CNC machines understand and function using CNC machining language – called G-code – which tells them precise measurements for production, like feed rate, speed, location, and coordination.

Today’s design and mechanical parts for CNC systems are highly automated – unlike the old, dangerous, factory machines you’d think of back in the day. The parts’ mechanical dimensions are defined using computer-aided design (CAD) software, and then translated into manufacturing directives by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) aplikasi. Therefore, it is important to have knowledgeable CNC machinists and programmers in the industry to operate this high-tech machinery.

The Importance of CNC Machining

Manufacturers in Connecticut are leaders in making penting products in the industry, such as jet engines, helicopters, and submarines. And, thanks to recent advancements in technology, gone are the days of gritty factory life. Workers today use their machining skills in a clean, professional setting with advanced and cutting-edge technology.

Those pursuing CNC operator careers enjoy working in a hands-on, never-a-dull-moment, growing field.

With proper CNC machining training, machinists and operators help create a wide variety of manufactured products, thereby playing a crucial role in Connecticut’s booming manufacturing industry and overall economy. Skilled CNC Machinists see a product through each phase of its creation, from the start of an initial concept to design, to code and then to the finished product. In this way, CNC machining is not just a typical manufacturing job; it is a hands-on, creative, valuable career path for innovators who like to see the lifecycle of their work.

What is it like to be a CNC Machinist?

Typical daily duties for CNC operators may include:Reading blueprints, sketches, or computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) filesSetting up, operating, and disassembling manual, automatic, and computer numerically controlled (CNC) machine toolsAligning, securing, and adjusting cutting tools and workpiecesMonitoring the feed and speed of machinesTurning, milling, drilling, shaping, and grinding machine parts to specificationsMeasuring, examining, and testing completed products for defectsSmoothing the surfaces of parts or productsPresenting finished workpieces to customers and make modifications if needed.

For aspiring machinists looking to start an exciting career in this growing field, earning an associate degree and/or certificate from a reputable manufacturing school is a great investment in the future! For those looking to become a CNC machinist in Connecticut, Goodwin College is recognized for our various CNC programs.

Whether at the certificate or degree level, our CNC machine pembinaan gives students a thorough understanding of the manufacturing processes, materials, and manufacturing mathematics. You’ll also gain competence in technical drawings, specifications, and computer-aided machining. Perhaps most importantly, you’ll also acquire practical experience with terbaru CNC technologies.

Goodwin College combines classroom education with hands-on experience and pembinaan. Students are taught on our new CNC 3-axis milling and turning machines, to provide the skills, know-how and experience needed to be successful in the industry. Thanks to the extend of CNC operator pembinaan, students also walk away with an understanding of advanced Mastercam skills needed for programming tool location, motion, and feeds and speeds.

Upon completion of these programs, students are ready to take on the National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS) credential to become a CNC operator.

Goodwin College’s competitive CNC operator school is designed to get students certified and working in the field in a short period of time, on a flexible schedule. No matter your personal obligations or current work situation, Goodwin has a manufacturing acara for your busy lifestyle. You do not have to put your life on hold to pursue the degree of your dreams.

Want to learn more Jasa Machining Medan about CNC operator careers, or about Goodwin’s career-focused CNC pelatihan programs? Call Goodwin College today at 1-800-889-3282 to learn more.

Goodwin University is a nonprofit institution of higher education and is accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE), formerly known as the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). Goodwin University was founded in 1999, with the goal of serving a diverse student population with career-focused degree programs that lead to strong employment outcomes.

Milling (machining) – Wikipedia

A tiga-axJasa Machining Medan is clone of a Bridgeport-style vertical milling machine

Milling is the process of machining using rotary cutters to remove material by advancing a cutter into a workpiece. This may be done varying direction on one or several axes, cutter head speed, and pressure. Milling covers a wide variety of different operations and machines, on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy-duty gang milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used processes for machining custom parts to precise tolerances.

Milling can be done with a wide range of machine tools. The original group of machine tools for milling was the milling machine (often called a mill). After the advent of computer numerical control (CNC) in the 1960s, milling machines evolved into machining centers: milling machines augmented by automatic tool changers, tool magazines or carousels, CNC capability, coolant Jasa Machining Medan systems, and enclosures. Milling centers are generally classified as vertical machining centers (VMCs) or horizontal machining centers (HMCs).

The integration of milling into turning environments, and vice versa, began with live tooling for lathes and the occasional use of mills for turning operations. This led to a new group of machine tools, multitasking machines (MTMs), which are purpose-built to facilitate milling and turning within the same work envelope.Process[edit]

Face milling process (cutter rotation axis is vertical – 0° inclination relative to tool axis)

Milling is a cutting process that uses a milling cutter to remove material from the surface of a work piece. The milling cutter is a rotary cutting tool, often with multiple cutting points. As opposed to drilling, where the tool is advanced along its rotation axis, the cutter in milling is usually moved perpendicular to its axis so that cutting occurs on the circumference of the cutter. As the milling cutter enters the work piece, the cutting edges (flutes or teeth) of the tool repeatedly cut into and exit from the material, shaving off chips (swarf) from the work piece with each pass. The cutting action is shear deformation; material is pushed off the work piece in tiny clumps that hang together to a greater or lesser extent (depending on the material) to form chips. This makes metal cutting somewhat different (in its mechanics) from slicing softer materials with a blade.

The milling process removes material by performing many separate, small cuts. This is accomplished by using a cutter with many teeth, spinning the cutter at high speed, or advancing the material through the cutter slowly; most often it is some combination of these three approaches. The speeds and feeds used are varied to suit a combination of variables. The speed at which the piece advances through the cutter is called feed rate, or just feed; it is most often measured as distance per time (inches per minute [in/min or ipm] or millimeters per minute [mm/min]), although distance per revolution or per cutter tooth are also sometimes used.

There are two major classes of milling process:In face milling, the cutting action occurs primarily at the end corners of the milling cutter. Face milling is used to cut flat surfaces (faces) into the work piece, or to cut flat-bottomed cavities.In peripheral milling, the cutting action occurs primarily along the circumference of the cutter, so that the cross section of the milled surface ends up receiving the shape of the cutter. In this case the blades of the cutter can be seen as scooping out material from the work piece. Peripheral milling is well suited to the cutting of deep slots, threads, and gear teeth.Milling cutters[edit]

Many different types of cutting tools are used in the milling process. Milling cutters such as end mills may have cutting surfaces across their Jasa Machining entire end surface, so that they can be drilled into the work piece (plunging). Milling cutters may also have extended cutting surfaces on their sides to allow for peripheral milling. Tools optimized for face milling tend to have only small cutters at their end corners.

The cutting surfaces of a milling cutter are generally made of a hard and temperature-resistant material, so that they wear slowly. A low cost cutter may have surfaces made of high speed steel. More expensive but slower-wearing materials include cemented carbide. Thin film coatings may be applied to decrease friction or further increase hardness.

There are cutting tools typically used in milling machines or machining centers to perform milling operations (and occasionally in other machine tools). They remove material by their movement within the machine (e.g., a ball nose mill) or directly from the cutter’s shape (e.g., a form tool such as a hobbing cutter).

A diagram of revolution ridges on a surface milled by the side of the cutter, showing the position of the cutter for each cutting pass and how it corresponds with the ridges (cutter rotation axis is perpendicular to image plane)

As material passes through the cutting area of a milling machine, the blades of the cutter take swarfs of material at regular intervals. Surfaces cut by the side of the cutter (as in peripheral milling) therefore always contain regular ridges. The distance between ridges and the height of the ridges depend on the feed rate, number of cutting surfaces, the cutter diameter. With a narrow cutter and rapid feed rate, these revolution ridges can be significant variations in the surface finish.

Trochoidal marks, characteristic of face milling.

The face milling process can in principle produce very flat surfaces. However, in practice the result always shows visible trochoidal marks following the motion of points on the cutter’s end face. These revolution marks give the characteristic finish of a face milled surface. Revolution marks can have significant roughness depending on factors such as flatness of the cutter’s end face and the degree of perpendicularity between the cutter’s rotation axis and feed direction. Often a final pass with a slow feed rate is used to improve the surface finish after the bulk of the material has been removed. In a precise face milling operation, the revolution marks will only be microscopic scratches due to imperfections in the cutting edge.

Heavy gang milling of milling machine tables

Gang milling refers to the use of two or more milling cutters mounted on the same arbor (that is, ganged) in a horizontal-milling setup. All of the cutters may perform the same type of operation, or each cutter may perform a different type of operation. For example, if several workpieces need a slot, a flat surface, and an angular groove, a good method to cutthese (within a non-CNC context) would be gang milling. All the completed workpieces would be the same, and milling time per piece would be minimized.[lima]

Gang milling was especially important before the CNC era, because for duplicate part production, it was a substantial efficiency improvement over manual-milling one feature at an operation, then changing machines (or changing setup of the same machine) to cut the next op. Today, CNC mills with automatic tool change and 4- or lima-axis control obviate gang-milling practice to a large extent.Equipment[edit]

Milling is performed with a milling cutter in various forms, held in a collett or similar which, in turn, is held in the spindle of a milling machine.Types and nomenclature[edit]

Mill orientation is the primary classification for milling machines. The two basic configurations are vertical and horizontal – referring to the orientation of the rotating spindle upon which the cutter is mounted. However, there are alternative classifications according to method of control, size, purpose and power source.Mill orientation[edit]Vertical[edit]

Vertical milling machine. 1: milling cutter 2: spindle 3: top slide or overarm 4: column 5: table 6: Y-axis slide 7: knee 8: base

In the vertical milling machine the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be lowered (or the table can be raised, giving the same relative effect of bringing the cutter closer or deeper into the work), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bed mill and the turret mill.A turret mill has a fixed spindle and the table is moved both perpendicular and parallel to the spindle axis to accomplish cutting.Some turret mills have a quill which allows the milling cutter (or a drill) to be raised and lowered in a manner similar to a drill press.This provides two methods of cutting in the vertical (Z) direction:by raising or lowering the quill, and by moving the knee.In the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindle’s axis, while the spindle itself moves parallel to its own axis.

What Is Cnc Machining And What Does Cnc Mean?

1) UTI is an educational institution and cannot guarantee employment or salary.

dua) For program outcome information and oJasa Machining Medan ther disclosures, visit www.uti.edu/disclosures.

3) Approximately 8,000 of the 8,400 UTI graduates in 2019 were available for employment. At the time of reporting, approximately 6,700 were employed within one year of their graduation date, for a total of 84%. This rate excludes graduates not availablefor employment because of continuing education, military service, health, incarceration, death or international student status. The rate includes graduates who completed manufacturer-specific advanced training programs and those employed in positionsthat were obtained before or during their UTI education, where the primary job duties after graduation align with the educational and training objectives of the program. UTI is an educational institution and cannot guarantee employment or salary.

lima) UTI programs prepare graduates for careers in industries using the provided training, primarily as automotive, diesel, collision repair, motorcycle and marine technicians. Some UTI graduates get jobs within their field of study in positions other thanas a technician, such as: parts associate, service writer, fabricator, paint and paint prep, and shop owner/operator. UTI is an educational institution and cannot guarantee employment or salary.

6) UTI graduates’ achievements may vary. Individual circumstances and wages depend on personal credentials and economic factors. Work experience, industry certifications, the location of the employer and their compensation programs affect wages. UTI isan educational institution and cannot guarantee employment or salary.

7) Some programs may require longer than one year to complete.

10) Financial aid, scholarships and grants are available to those who qualify. Awards vary due to specific conditions, criteria and state.

11) See program details for eligibility requirements and conditions that may apply.

12) Based on data compiled from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections (2016-2026), www.bls.gov, viewed October 24, 2017. The projected number of annualjob openings, by job classification is: Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics, 75,900; Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists, 28,300; Automotive Body and Related Repairers, 17,200. Job openings include openings due to growthand net replacements.

14) Incentive programs and employee eligibility are at the discretion of the employer and available at select locations. Special conditions may apply. Talk to potential employers to learn more about the programs available in your area.

15) Manufacturer-paid advanced pelatihan programs are conducted by UTI on behalf of manufacturers who determine acceptance criteria and conditions. These programs are not part of UTI’s accreditation. Programs available at select locations.

16) Not all programs are accredited by the ASE Education Foundation.

20) VA benefits may not be available at all campus locations.

21) GI Bill® is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). More information about education benefits offered by VA is available at the official U.S. government website.

22) Salute to Service Grant is available to all eligible veterans at all campus locations. The Yellow Ribbon program is approved at our Avondale, Dallas/Fort Worth, Long Beach, Orlando, Rancho Cucamonga and Sacramento campus locations.

24) NASCAR Technical Institute prepares graduates to work as entry-level automotive service technicians. Graduates who take NASCAR-specific electives also may have job opportunities in racing-related industries. Of those 2019 graduates who took electives,approximately 20% found racing-related opportunities. NASCAR Tech’s overall employment rate for 2019 was 84%.

25) Estimated annual median salary for Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics in the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2020. UTI is an educational institution and cannot guarantee employment or salary. UTI graduates’ achievements may vary. Individual circumstances and wages depend on personal credentials and economic factors. Work experience, industry certifications, the location of the employer and their compensation programs affect wages. Entry-level salaries are lower. UTI programs prepare graduates for careers in industries using the provided pelatihan, primarily as automotive technicians. Some UTI graduates get jobs within their field of study in positions other than as a technician, such as service writer, smog inspector and parts manager. Salary information for the Jasa Machining Medan Commonwealth of Massachusetts: The average annual entry-level salary range for persons employed as Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (49-3023) is $32,140 to $53,430 (Massachusetts Labor and Workforce Development, May 2020 data, viewed January 19, 2022, https://lmi.2.eol.mass.gov/lmi/OccupationalEmploymentAndWageSpecificOccupations#). North Carolina salary information: The U.S. Department of Labor estimate of hourly earnings of the middle 50% for skilled automotive technicians in North Carolina, published May Jasa Machining 2021, is $20.59. The Bureau of Labor Statistics does not publish entry-level salary data. However, the 25th and 10th percentile of hourly earnings in North Carolina are $14.55 and $11.27, respectively. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2020. Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics, viewed June 2, 2021.)

26) Estimated annual median salary for Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers in the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2020. UTI is an educational institution and cannot guarantee employment or salary. UTI graduates’ achievements may vary. Individual circumstances and wages depend on personal credentials and economic factors. Work experience, industry certifications, the location of the employer and their compensation programs affect wages. Entry-level salaries are lower. UTI programs prepare graduates for careers in industries using the provided pembinaan, primarily as welding technicians. Some UTI graduates get jobs within their field of study in positions other than as a technician, such as inspector and quality control. Salary information for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: The average annual entry-level salary range for persons employed as Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (51-4121) is $36,160 to $50,810 (Massachusetts Labor and Workforce Development, May 2020 data, viewed January 19, 2022, https://lmi.2.eol.mass.gov/lmi/OccupationalEmploymentAndWageSpecificOccupations#). North Carolina salary information: The U.S. Department of Labor estimate of hourly earnings of the middle 50% for skilled welders in North Carolina, published May 2021, is $20.28. The Bureau of Labor Statistics does not publish entry-level salary data. However, the 25th and 10th percentile of hourly earnings in North Carolina are $16.97 and $14.24, respectively. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2020. Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers, viewed June dua, 2021.)

27) Does not include time required to complete a qualifying prerequisite acara of 18 weeks plus an additional 12 weeks or 24 weeks in manufacturer-specific training, depending on the manufacturer.

Shaft Machining_technology, Material, Tolerance, Classification, Process, Persoalan, Price


Shafts are mechanical parts that transmit motion, torque, or bending moments. Generally round metal rods, each segment can have different diameters.Motor shaft machining, stainless steel shaft machining, long shaft parts, precision shaft machining, small shaft machining, gear shaft machining, step shaft machining.


The product structure of the shaft is different. The shaft can be divided into  a stepped shaft, a tapered mandrel, an optical shaft, a hollow shaft, a crankshaft, a camshaft, an eccentric shaft, various screw shafts, and the like.It is mainly used to support transmission parts, transmit torque and bear load. Shaft parts are rotating parts, whose length is greater than the diameter, generally consisting of the outer cylindrical surface, conical surface, inner Jasa Machining bore and threads of the concentric shaft and the corresponding end face. According to different structural shapes, shaft parts can be divided into optical axis, stepped shaft, hollow shaft and crankshaft.

Shafts with an aspect ratio of less than lima are called minor axes, and those with diameters greater than 20 are called elongated shafts, with most of the axes in between.

The basic production process is as follows:

1. Parts pattern analysis;

dua. Determine the blank;

tiga. The method of determining the primary processing surface;

4. Determine the positioning benchmark;

lima. Division phase

6. Heat treatment process arrangement;

7. Processing size and cutting amount;

8. Formulate the process;

9. Drive shaft machining process process diagram. Comprehensive analysis of the above:


There are many types of shaft materials, and the selection is mainly based on the shaft strength, stiffness, wear resistance and other requirements, as well as the heat treatment method used to achieve these requirements, while taking into account the manufacturing process to be selected, and strive to economic and reasonable.

The common materials for shafts are high-quality carbon Jasa Machining Medan steels 35, 45, and 50. The most commonly used steels are 45 and 40Cr steels. For shafts with smaller loads, ordinary carbon steels such as Q235 or Q275 are also commonly used. For the shafts that require greater force, shaft size and weight are limited, and there are certain special requirements, alloy steel can be used, commonly used 40Cr, 40MnB, 40CrNi and so on. The material of the shaft is mainly carbon steel and alloy steel. Most of the steel shaft blanks use rolled steel and forgings, while others use direct round steel.

Ductile cast iron and some high-strength cast irons are easy to cast into complex shapes due to their good casting properties, as well as good vibration damping performance. Low sensitivity to Jasa Machining Medan stress concentration, the impact of the fulcrum displacement is small. Therefore, it is often used to manufacture complex-shaped shafts.

Camshaft material and heat treatment process (table)


Preheat treatment

Final heat treatment




Layer deep(mm)



Alloy cast iron



Stress relief annealing





Bainite austempering

Bainite austempering nitrocarburizing

Induction hardening





kink 55~63

tooth 45~58



Stress relief annealing



Induction hardening

Bainite austempering 


kink 55~63

tooth 45~58



Stress relief annealing



Carburizing, quenching and tempering

Bainite austempering

Induction quenching, tempering








Carburizing, quenching and tempering





Stress relief annealing


Induction hardening cam

Bearing neck






Normalizing -


Induction quenching, tempering



Accuracy & Tolerance

    Under normal circumstances, the shaft generally marked 0 ~ +0.005, if it is not often dismantled, it is +0.005 ~ +0.01 of the interference fit on it, if you often want to disassemble, To set the transition fit.

We also need to consider the thermal expansion of the shaft material itself during rotation, so the bigger the bearing, Clearance fit is preferably set to -0.005 ~ 0, not more than 0.01 at maximum.

H7H8h6 is a national standard shaft tolerances with the provisions of (uniform provisions to facilitate the exchange of drawings), The letters that begin with a capital letter (such as H7, K7, and Js7) indicate the hole tolerance, and the letters that begin with a lowercase letter (such as h7, k7, and js7) indicate the axis tolerance.

The specific tolerances represented by these tolerance codes must be determined based on the size of the basic dimensions. If 100h7,100 is the basic size (design theory size), 100h7 through the tolerance tolerance manual, its tolerance is (0,~0.035), unit mm. For 200h7, the tolerance is (0,~0.046) in mm. In the general design process, the tolerances of the corresponding shaft holes are determined based on the matching of the base hole system. They generally differ by one grade. The tolerances are in the specific processing of solid parts, generally take the principle of the largest entity.

The tolerance level of the shaft or housing bore that matches the bearing is related to the accuracy of the bearing. For shafts fitted with P0-group precision bearings, the tolerance group is generally IT6, and the housing bore is generally IT7. For applications with high requirements for rotational accuracy and smoothness of operation (eg, motors, etc.), the shaft should be IT5 and the housing bore should be IT6.

Structural classification

The structural design of the shaft is an important step for the design of the shaft to determine the reasonable shape of the shaft and the overall size of the shaft. It consists of the type, size, and position of the mounting parts on the shaft, the fixing of the parts, the nature, direction, size, and distribution of the load. The type and size of the bearing, shaft blanks, manufacturing and assembly processes, installation and transport, and the shaft deformation and other factors. The designer can design according to the specific requirements of the shaft. If necessary, several options can be done for comparison. In order to select the design scheme, the following is the general shaft structure design principle:

1, save materials, reduce weight, as far as possible the use of equal-strength dimensions or large cross-sectional coefficient of the cross-sectional shape;

2, the shaft part is easy to pinpoint, solid, assembly, disassembly and adjustment;

3, the structure of various measures to reduce stress concentration and increase in strength;

4, to facilitate manufacturing and to ensure accuracy.

5. The nature, size, direction and distribution of the load;

6, shaft machining process and assembly methods.

7. The shaft and the parts mounted on the shaft must have an accurate working position;

Machining – Material Removal Processes

MachJasa Machining Medan ining is a term used to describe avariety of material removal processes in which a Jasa Machining Medan cuttingtool removes unwanted material from aworkpieceto produce the desired shape. The workpiece is typically cut from alarger piece of stock,which is available in a variety ofstandard shapes, such as flat sheets, solid bars, hollow tubes,and shaped beams. Machining can also be performed on anexisting part, such as a casting or forging.

Parts that aremachined from a pre-shaped workpiece are typically cubic orcylindrical in their overall shape, but their individualfeatures may be quite complex. Machining can be used tocreate a variety of features including holes, slots,pockets, flat surfaces, and even complex surface contours.Also, while machined parts are typically metal, almost allmaterials can be machined, including metals, plastics,composites, and wood. For these reasons, machining is oftenconsidered the most common and versatile of allmanufacturing processes.

As a material removal process,machining is inherently not the most economical choice for aprimary manufacturing process. Material, which has been paidfor, is cut away and discarded to achieve the final part.Also, despite the low setup and tooling costs, longmachining times may be required and therefore be costprohibitive for large quantities. As a result, machining ismost often used for limited quantities as in the fabricationof prototypes or custom tooling for other manufacturingprocesses. Machining is also very commonly used as asecondary process, where minimal material is removed and thecycle time is short.Due to the high tolerance andsurface finishesthat machining offers, it is often used to add orrefine precision features to an existing part or smooth asurface to a fine finish.

As mentioned above, machining includesa variety of processes that each removes material from aninitial workpiece or part. The most common material removalprocesses, sometimes referred to as conventional ortraditional machining, are those that mechanically cut awaysmall chips of material using a sharp tool. Non-conventionalmachining processes may use chemical or thermal means ofremoving material. Conventional machining processesare often placed in three categories – single pointcutting, multi-point cutting, and abrasive machining.Each process in these categories is uniquely defined bythe type of cutting tool used and the general motion ofthat tool and the workpiece. However, within a givenprocess a variety of operations can be performed, eachutilizing a specific type of tool and cutting motion. Themachining of a part will typically require a variety ofoperations that are performed in a carefully plannedsequence to create the desired features.Material removal processesMechanicalSingle-point cuttingTurningPlaning and shapingMulti-point cuttingMillingDrillingBroachingSawingAbrasive machiningGrindingHoningLappingUltrasonic machiningAbrasive jet machiningChemicalChemical machiningElectrochemical machining (ECM)ThermalTorch cuttingElectrical discharge machining (EDM)High energy beam machining

Single point cutting refers tousing a cutting tool with a single sharp edge that isused to remove material from the workpiece. The mostcommon single point cutting process is turning, in whichthe workpiece rotates and the cutting tool feeds intothe workpiece, cutting away material. Turning isperformed on a lathe or turning machine and producescylindrical parts that may have external or internalfeatures. Turning operations such as turning,boring, facing,grooving, cut-off (parting),and thread cuttingallow for a wide variety of features to be machined,including slots, tapers, threads, flat surfaces, andcomplex contours. Other single point cutting processesexist that do not require the workpiece to rotate, suchas planing and shaping.

Multi-point cutting refers to using acutting tool with many sharp teeth that moves against theworkpiece to remove material. The two most commonmulti-point cutting processes are milling and drilling. Inboth processes, the cutting tool is cylindrical with sharpteeth around its perimeter and rotates at high speeds. Inmilling, the workpiece is fed into the rotating tool alongdifferent paths and depths to create a variety of Jasa Machining features.Performed on a milling machine, milling operations such asend milling,chamfer milling,and face milling are used tocreate slots, chamfers, pockets, flat surfaces, and complexcontours. Milling machines can also perform drillingand other hole-making operations as well.

In drilling, therotating tool is fed vertically into the stationaryworkpiece to create a hole. A drill press is specificallydesigned for drilling, but milling machines and turningmachines can also perform this process. Drilling operationssuch as counterboring,countersinking,reaming,and tapping canbe used to create recessed holes, high precision holes,and threaded holes. Other multi-point cutting processesexist that do not require the tool to rotate, such asbroaching and sawing.

Abrasive machining refers to using atool formed of tiny abrasive particles to remove materialfrom a workpiece. Abrasive machining is considered amechanical process like milling or turning because eachparticle cuts into the workpiece removing a small chip ofmaterial. While typically used to improve the surface finishof a part, abrasive machining can still be used to shape aworkpiece and form features. The most common abrasivemachining process is grinding, in which the cutting tool isabrasive grains bonded into a wheel that rotates against theworkpiece. Grinding may be performed on a surface grindingmachine which feeds the workpiece into the cutting tool, ora cylindrical grinding machine which rotates the workpieceas the cutting tool feeds into it. Other abrasive machiningprocesses use particles in other ways, such as attached to asoft material or suspended in a liquid. Such processesinclude honing, lapping, ultrasonic machining, and abrasivejet machining.


Materials for CNC Machining Parts

CNC machining has a long list of available materials for custom prototypes and manufacturing parts, from hard metals like stainless steel and titanium, to soft metals such as aluminum, copper, brass, all the way to plastics including ABS, PC, PA, etc. Aluminum Copper Brass Stainless Steel Titanium Plastics

Aluminum is a highly ductile metal, making it easy to machine. The material has a good strength-to-weight ratio and is available in many types for a range of applications.

Copper displays excellent thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and plasticity. It is also highly ductile, corrosion resistant and can be easily welded.

Brass has desirable properties for a number of applications. It is low friction, has excellent electrical conductivity and has a golden (brass) appearance.

Stainless steel is the low carbon steel that offers many properties that are sought after for industrial applications. Stainless steel typically contains a minimum of 10% chromium by weight.

Titanium has a number of material properties that make it the ideal metal for demanding applications. These properties include excellent resistance to corrosion, chemicals and extreme temperatures. The metal also has an excellent strength-to-weight ratio.

Plastics are also very popular Jasa Machining Medan option for CNC machining because of its wide choices, relatively lower price, and significantly faster machining time needed. We provide all common plastics for CNC machining services.POMNylonABSPEEKPTFEPCHDPEPVCPMMAPETPP

Apart from custom CNC milling and turning services, we also provide complete surface finishing options for custom CNC machining parts. Anodizing Bead Blasting Powder Coating Electroplating Polishing Brushing

Anodizing improves corrosion resistance, enhancing wear resistance and hardness, and protecting the metal surface. Widely used in mechanical parts, aircraft, and automobile parts, precision instruments, etc.

Clear, black, grey, red, blue, gold.

Bead blasting results in parts with a smooth surface with a matte texture. Used mainly for visual applications and can be followed by other surface treatments.

ABS, Aluminum, Brass, Stainless Steel, Steel

Powder coating is a type of coating that is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. Unlike conventional liquid paint Jasa Machining which is delivered via an evaporating solvent, powder coating is typically applied electrostatically and then cured under heat or with ultraviolet light.

Aluminum, Stainless Steel, Steel

Black, any RAL code or Pantone number.

Vehicle parts, household appliances, aluminum extrusions

Electroplating can be functional, decorative or corrosion-related. Many industries use the process, including the automotive sector, in which chrome-plating of steel automobile parts is common.

Aluminum, Steel, Stainless Steel

Tin, Nickel, Electroless Nickel

Electrical connections, jewelry, radiation shields

Galvanizing, nickel plating, tin plating, passivation

Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface, either through physical rubbing of the part or by chemical interference. The process produces a surface with significant specular reflection, but in some materials is able to reduce diffuse reflection.

Aluminum, Brass, Stainless Steel, Steel

Mechanical polishing, chemical polishing

Brushing is a surface treatment process in which abrasive belts are used to draw traces on the surface of a material, usually for aesthetic purposes.

ABS, Aluminum, Brass, Stainless Steel, Steel

CNC Machining Tolerance

Our standard tolerances for CNC machining of metals is DIN-2768-1-fine and for plastics is DIN-2768-1-medium. Tolerances are greatly affected by part geometry and type of material. For case-by-case studies, please contact us with email for details.TypeToleranceLinear dimension

37.0 * 21.5 * 18.lima inchOur Quality PromiseISO 9001:2015Full dimensional reportMaterial certificationFirst article inspectionRework & refund policy

What is CNC MachiningCNC, or computer numerical control machining, is a subtractive manufacturing method that leverages a combination of computerized controls and machine tools to remove layers from a solid block of material. The desired cuts in the metal are programmed according to corresponding tools and machinery, which perform the machining task in an automated fashion.

How large of a part or panel can be CNC machined?RapidDirect can accommodate the prototyping and production of large machined parts, plastic or metal. Our maximum CNC machining build envelope is 2000 mm x 1500 mm x 300 mm — suitable even for Jasa Machining Medan large-scale parts such as furniture and architectural components.

What kind of a finish does CNC machining leave?Due to the spinning motion produced by the CNC milling machine’s cutter, the surface finish of CNC machined parts will have visible toolmarks. If you require a smooth, unblemished finish to your part, we recommend choosing a secondary finish: grained finish (can only be applied to the outside of machined enclosures due to geometry) or powdercoat.

Mesin Roll Plate (rol Plat, Bending Roll)

Mesin roll plate atau mesin rol plat atau bending roll merupakan salahsatu alat yg sangat diharapkan buat membuat tangki juga pipa. Karena mesin roll ini bisa membarui plate menjadi gulungan-gulungan yang berbentuk bundar . Jadi, wadah-wadah misalnya tangki yg biasa anda lihat di tempat tinggal-tempat tinggalanda itu cara pembuatannya dengan memakai mesin roll atau kadang dianggap dengan bending roll. Bagi yg ingin menekuni usaha, mungkin indera ini sanggup anda gunakan buat menjalankan bisnis anda, lantaran usaha seperti ini masih tergolong langka di Indonesia, tidak misalnya usaha-usaha lainnya yang poly seJasa Roll Plat kali pesaingnya. Harganya pun nir terlalu banyak menguras kantong bila dibandingkan dengan mesin-mesin berat lainnya.

Mesin roll plat ditinjau berdasarkan segi bentuknya, digolongkan dalam tiga macam. Meskipun sebenarnya masih ada jenis-jenis roll plate lainnya, ini hanya garis besarnya saja.Mesin bending roll 3 roll, dikatakan misalnya ini lantaran Jasa Roll Plat medan rollnya ada tiga dan membentuk segi tiga. 2 berada dibawah yg disusun secara sejajar & yg lainnya berada di atas yg mengakibatkan susunannya miripdengan segitiga. Penggeraknya menggunakan dua asal sekaligus, yakni memakai hydrolic & motor listric. Alat ini umumnya dipakai buat  menggulung plate-plate yang tebal bahkan beberapa mesin roll lain yang memakai 3 roll ini kadang digunakan buat menggulung plate menciptakan Jasa Roll Plat medan kerucut atau dikenal dengan istilah cone bending, fungsi bentuk kerucut gak mesti dimiliki mesin bending 3 roll, soalnya kapasitas atau kekuatannya harus dua kali lipat besarnya buat menciptakan sebuah plate kerucut. apabila hanya membangun tangki atau pipa biasa kapasitasnya lebih rendah.

Mesin bending roll empat roll, Tidak seperti jenis sebelumnya, mesin 4 roll ini lebih mudah dalam melakukan penggulungan plat. Soalnya dapat dipasang pada sisi juga sejajar dg meja. dua roll berada pada atas dan bawah yg dua lagi berada di sisi kanan dan kiri. Dengan mesin ini, untuk membuat plat kerucut pula lebih gampang & indah. Ketika proses penggulungan, terdapat proses prebending, yakni ketika pucuk plat yg diroll jadi keras sekali yang membuatnya permanen lurus (gak tergulung secara sempurna), umumnya pucuknya dipotong & dibuang, namun menggunakan mesin bending empat roll inilah hal demikian dapat diminimalisir & semuanya mampu tergulung. Kemampuannya yg lebih akbar dari dalam mesin 3 roll inilah yang mampu melakukan hal seperti ini. Intinya, mesin 4 roll adalah mesin hasil penyempurnaan berdasarkan mesin 3 roll.

Mesin bending roll asimetris, Di antara seluruh jenis mesin roll plate, mesin roll asimetris merupakan mesin yg paling sederhana dibandingkan dengan yg lainnya. Meskipun memakai 3 roll, tetapi susunannya asimetris, yang duaroll dipakai buat menjepit dan yang lainnya digunakan buat mengarahkan. Lantaran tergolong sederhana, untuk mengeroll plat pun sanggup menggunakan tenagamanusia. Tetapi nir jarang tenaganya dari berdasarkan hydrolic ataupun motor listric. Dan tentunya alat ini digunakan hanya untuk menggulung plat yang tipis saja lantaran memang kekuatan rollnya sangat mini.

Baca Juga :Mesin Stone Crusher Plant (Mesin Pemecah batu)Mesin Pemecah Batu Crusher Stone (Penyedia) Mesin Hammer Mill (Penyedia)Mesin Jaw Crusher (Penyedia) Mesin Hidrolik (Hydraulic Machine) 

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Welcome to Playhub.com. On this site you will find over 11,000 free games to play for the whole family,for young and old children! You will find action games, sport games, Mahjong or Bubble Shooters.You will also find games for Jasa Roll Plat medan girls and the best flash games and HTML5 web as Candy Crush or Agar.io.Want to play a free game? We offer you online games suitable for you and your desires!

You like discover new games on the internet? Thanks to this section you will find the latest chip flash games andHTML5 in order to have fun and relax with your family. Right now there are new free games.The best are the girl and reflexion games. Millions of players have already added them to their favorite games!Best games this week

Candy Crush and Mario Kart are available on Playhub.com. There are games that make the buzz this year like 2048,Flappy Bird or Agar.io. There is something for everyone! Do not forget the classic free games like Kingdom Rush,Goodgame Empire, the series of motorcycle racing Uphill Rush, the mahjongs, Bubble Shooter to relax and of coursethe best games of girl online! Barbie, Mario, Snow Queen … play with them for free online Playhub.com!Best games by category

Discover more games for free without downloading! Whether you’re a girl or a boy, from 7 to 77 years youwill always find on Playhub.com the games you like. By category, you will find easily flash and HTML5 gamesonline to play alone or with others. So you will have fun on the biggest gaming site on the web!sports gamesadventure gamesshooting gameswar games

Free games in flash and HTML5 are available. Playhub.com Jasa Roll Plat medan offers you a catalog of over 11,000 free games without downloading the whole family for over 10 years.With several million visitors, Playhub.com is a famous platform game.If you are always looking for new HTML5 and Flash games online, you can play the classic online games, discover before everybody Jasa Roll Plat news and discover the next game Buzz! With more than 200 different categories of games, there is something for everyone!

Looking for a fun and entertaining game? On this laman you can find all the games online for free on this site. Do you like girl games, you feel like shopping with Mario? Choose the game that will most amuse you on Playhub.com! You’re a new player and you do not know what to play? Find the best games of the web, tested and approved by our gaming community! The next successful flash games, Unity 3D and HTML5 are already Playhub.com. Discover each day all new titles of the web.

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Rubber FlooringRubber flooring, rolls, tiles and mats are available in a wide selection. For commercial fitness areas, rubber flooring rolls are a great fit. These are available in black, regrind, and fleck colors. Rolled rubber is kept in stock and ready for immediate shipment. Rubber mats come in 4×6 ft sizes and are made for weight rooms, horse stalls, and more. No glue is needed to set the interlocking rubber tiles. These products is also offered in a variety of color options.

Martial Arts MatsOur complete line of martial arts mats is great for a number of athletic uses, such as BJJ, Judo, Krav Maga, Karate or Taekwondo. Greatmats can provide mats for MMA and grappling floors in multiple designs, including flexible roll out mats, folding crash pads, and interlocking puzzle mats. Pole and wall pads can be custom made to fit any facility. Martial arts mats for in-home use can be bought in 2×2 ft. interlocking tiles, making them ideal for easy ground shipping to your front door.

Dance FlooringMarley dance floors are a popular choice for customers who spend time in theaters, on stage floors, and at professional dance studios. Greatmats also offers portable dance floor tiles that are both an indoor/outdoor portable flooring material, commonly used in hotels, banquet halls, and event rental facilities.

Rooftop FloorsRooftops, decks and patios can be transformed into a comfortable space by choosing rubber rooftop outdoor tiles, or modular perforated outdoor patio tiles, which are portable and easy to install. Outdoor deck and patio surfacing can help to build a more practical living space for homes or commercial locations.

Home Gym FloorsGreatmats holds a complete line of foam tiles, interlocking rubber gym flooring, and foldable Jasa Roll Plat medan gymnastics mats. It also has modular cushion flooring material, like the Staylock Orange Peel Floor Tile. Staylock floor tiles add durability and cushioned support over any surface. For home gym floors and plyometric pelatihan surfaces, rolled rubber flooring can be shipped by ground delivery in convenient 4×10 ft. size.

Kids Play MatsPlay areas require comfort, color, and paling aman, which comes guaranteed by our kids rugs and interlocking foam floors. Interlocking foam mats are waterproof, easy to install and clean, and designed to last years. By choosing Greatmats soft flooring materials, hard home surfaces, like concrete basement floors can be transformed into child friendly play areas.

Exercise FlooringExercise mats provide a safe and comfortable surface for athletics and workout routines in studios or physical therapy facilities. Personal exercise mats are a great option for home and professional floor exercises. Interlocking foam floors are a popular option for large exercise rooms.

Playground FlooringRubber playground tiles are available for school, church and commercial areas in need of an outdoor fall height rated surfacing. Our tiles can ship from various locations nationwide, in numerous color options. Playground mats are designed to provide safe padding under playground equipment, like slides and swing sets. The material features no-glue installation for rooftop surfaces

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Greatmats’ easy-to-navigate website features an industry-leading online floor plan designer, virtual room visualizer and quick flooring calculator for free design and rencana help. These are user-friendly tools that help customers determine how much material is needed for an installation and how different materials and colors will look in Jasa Roll Plat medan their spaces. The floor planner is great for rencana complex room layouts and designs, selecting product colors, and requesting a quote or order online.

Many of Greatmats foam tiles and rubber flooring products are kept in stock and ready to ship within just one to two business days. Located in Milltown, WI, Greatmats Midwestern location makes it easy to ship products quickly to almost anywhere in the Lower 48 states.